Laying out a Time-Frame for Saul’s Reign
By Bruce L. Gerig

How old might Jonathan and David have been when they met? This might seem like an easy question; but actually trying to answer it is more like wading out into a marshland of opinion or attempting to solve a murder mystery, complete with missing evidence, hidden motives, and multiple theories. One villain in all of this is Saul’s enigmatic “royal introduction” in 1 Sam 13:1, which translates (lit.) from the Masoretic Hebrew as, “A son of a year (was) Saul when be became king, and two years he reigned over Israel.”1 Clearly, the text as it stands is nonsensical,2 and some numbers very early were lost in transmission or suppressed by an editor who disliked Saul,3 viewed his reign as invalid, and wanted David to appear as Samuel’s successor instead.4 This type of regal formula begins (clearly) with David (2 Sam 5:4) and thereafter is applied to nearly all of the kings of the southern kingdom (17 out of 20), after Israel was split by Solomon’s two sons (Jeroboam in the north and Rehoboam in the south). This royal introduction was never used with the northern kings, whom the editor of Deuteronomy–Kings considered illegitimate and apostate5 – and perhaps he had similar feelings toward Saul’s disappointing reign. Ancient rabbis tried to make sense of this verse by translating the first part as “Like a one-year-old who had no sins was Saul when he became king.”6 On the other hand, the King James Version tried to clarify verse 1 by connecting it to verse 2, so that it read, “[13:1] Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel, [2] Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel” for his army…” – however, this reading never found wide acceptance with Hebrew scholars.

Most Septuagint manuscripts (the Greek translation of Hebrew Scriptures begun in the 3rd century B.C.) omit 13:1 entirely, although a few do include it and give Saul’s coronation age as “thirty” – which scholars think was probably an estimate based on the record that “David was thirty years old when he began to reign.” (2 Sam 5:4, NRSV)7 Paul, in his sermon given in Antioch in Pisidia, says that Saul “reigned for forty years” (Acts 13:21); and this seems backed up by a reference from the first-century Jewish historian, Josephus, who writes that Saul’s reign was divided into 18 years before and 22 years after Samuel’s death (Antiquities of the Jews, 6.378), totaling 40 years. However, elsewhere Josephus draws from another tradition which held that Saul reigned for 20 years (Antiquities, 10.143).8 This concern with numbers also raises a more general question as one notes that so many of Israel’s early leaders are recorded in Scripture as having ruled for exactly “forty years” – including Moses (Josh 5:6), Othniel (Judg 3:11), Gideon (Judg 8:28), Eli (1 Sam 4:18), David (2 Sam 5:4), and Solomon (2 Chron 9:30). (Other major leaders, like Joshua and Samuel, have no length of service given.) As Bruce Birch notes, the Bible and other ancient literature commonly used round numbers to indicate approximate, traditional, or hyperbolic (exaggerated) rather than exact figures; and, in fact, the most frequently used round number in the Bible is “forty years,” which may have been used to suggest a long period of time, a full generation, or a complete term of service.9 Still, if “40 years” means essentially “a long time,” this is a better “working number” to use than 30 or 20 years, for Saul’s reign.

Therefore, scholars and translators have been left to try to guess Saul’s age at coronation and his length of reign, with their opinions varying considerably. For example, it has been suggested that Saul was crowned when he was around 30 (Hertzberg 1964, p. 103; NIV 1978; REB 1989; Youngblood 1992, p. 652), 40 (NASB 1960; Klein 1983, p. 122), and 50 (Ackroyd 1971, p. 101; NEB 1970). Further, the length of his reign has been estimated to have been around 10 years (John Bright 1972, in Kirsch 2000, p. 40), 20 years (Coogan 1998, p. 598; Kirsch 2000, p. 316), 22 years (Ackroyd 1971, p. 101; NEB 1970), 30 years (Cogan 1992, ABD I, 1010), 32 years (NASB 1960), 40 years (Hertzberg 1964, p. 103; Archer 1979, p. 368), and 42 years (NIV 1978; Youngblood 1992, p. 652). If there are useful clues here, they might be that Saul’s coronation age may best be represented by two digits ending with “zero,” and his regal term by two digits ending with “two.” To make headway, we must now look for other clues in the Biblical text.

David is called a na‘ar and an ‘elem when he kills Goliath.– We can determine rather precisely how old David was when he met Jonathan, because of two words that appear in the giant-slaying story (1 Sam 17). First, David is called a na‘ar, twice by Saul (17:33,55) and once by Goliath (really the narrator, 17:42), which the NRSV translates respectively as “boy” (v. 33), “young man” (v. 55), and “youth” (v. 42). Then, when David appears before the king afterward, Saul calls him an ‘elem (17:56), which has been translated as “striping” (KJV, NRSV, REB) and “young man” (Lamsa, NASB, NIV). Strong’s lexicon notes that na‘ar (#5288) could be applied to a boy of any age between infancy and adolescence.10 For example, it was used to refer to Jacob and Esau as boys (Gen 25:27), to Ishmael as a lad of thirteen (17:25), and to Joseph at age seventeen (37:2). The term was also sometimes applied to court or household servants,11 as can be seen in 1 Sam 9:3, where Saul’s wealthy father told him to take one of their na‘arim (pl.) along as he searched for their lost donkeys. The term ‘elem, however, refers more narrowly to a “stripling,” a youth passing into manhood.12 As Daniel Pecota notes, ‘elem (#5958), which appears only twice in the OT, is the counterpart of ‘alma (#5959, a “virgin”), both referring to a lad or lass who has reached, or perhaps is near to reaching, marriageable age13 – or who is “ripe sexually,” as the Brown-Driver-Briggs lexicon puts it.14 Diana Edelman has suggested that the marriageable age in ancient Israel for males was in the twenties and for females in the teens.15 However, later Jewish rabbis (in the treatise Pirke Aboth, 5.21) declared that a Jewish male was old enough to marry at age eighteen, although he could not assume “full authority” (and come of full age) until thirty. Today puberty usually appears in boys between the ages of 13-15 and in girls between the ages of 9-16;16 and we can assume that the hormones were flowing in Israelite youths during these years, as well. Even though David was still a teenager when he came to court and met Jonathan (1 Sam 18:1-4), Saul would soon marry him off to one of his daughters (Michal, 18:27). Perhaps many parents in ancient Israel wanted to see their teenage sons get married, rather than to discover someday that they had succumbed to temptation and so were forced into a “shotgun” marriage (cf. Deut 22:28-29).

Walter Brueggemann views David as “an innocent, young boy.”17 Yet Antony Campbell reminds us that he was able to chase down a lion or bear, strike it to rescue his sheep, and grab it around the jaw if it attacked him, to kill it (1 Sam 17:34-35). Also, facing Goliath, David shows himself to be fast, tough, and strong. Still, Campbell goes too far in calling him “a big man.”18 Rather, all his days spent running after sheep and providing for them in wild had made him strong and lean and muscular. Linguistic analysis, then, along with the fact that he appears to be athletic and fully grown, suggests that David was perhaps a sturdy 18, when he killed Goliath and met Jonathan.

David was 30 when he was anointed king in Hebron. – In 2 Sam 5:4-5 we are told that “David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years. At Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months; and at Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years.” (NRSV) After the death of Saul and Jonathan, the Lord directed David to go with his men and live in Hebron; and “the people of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah.” (2 Sam 2:1-4b) Hebron was a city located in the tribe and territory of Judah, ca. 19 miles SSW of Jerusalem, overlooking a fertile valley and containing an abundant supply of wells and springs.19 Thereafter followed “a long war between the house of Saul and the house of David [but] David grew stronger and stronger…” (2 Sam 3:1). If David was around 18 years old when he killed Goliath and met Jonathan, if he was 30 years old when Saul was killed and he was made king in Hebron, and if David’s second stay in court was short, then he must have spent about 11 years eluding Saul and his soldiers in the wilderness (1 Sam 21-30). Since Jonathan’s feelings for David were so intense right from the moment he set eyes on him (18:1) and no sooner had David unpacked his things at court than Saul was “very angry” with him (18:8), probably David’s fortunes there declined rapidly despite Jonathan’s best mediating efforts. It also should be noted that the first-century tradition that Saul reigned 22 years after the death of Samuel (1 Sam 25:1) is quite impossible unless David was around 7 years old when he killed Goliath. Rather, David’s stay in court with Jonathan (1 Sam 18-20) probably lasted no more than a year, and his stay in the wilderness lasted about 11 years.

Ishbaal, Saul’s second-born son, was 40 years old when his father died. – How old was Jonathan when he met David? First, 2 Sam 2:10 says that “Ishbosheth [NRSV: Ishbaal] was forty years old when he became king over Israel, and he reigned for two years. The tribe of Judah, however, followed David.” (REB) Second, a number of verses list Saul’s sons: 1 Sam 14:49 names Jonathan, Ishyo (NRSV: Ishvi), and Malchishua; 1 Sam 31:2 names Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua (all of whom were killed along with Saul); and 1 Chron 8:33 and 9:39 name Jonathan, Malchishua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal. (REB) As can be seen here, one son has been given multiple names. Some scholars have reasoned that at birth he was named Ishbaal (meaning “man of the lord”), which was given a slightly different spelling (Eshbaal) in Chronicles. However, the Deuteronomistic editor changed his name in the Hebrew in 2 Sam 2:8,12 to Ishbosheth (meaning “man of shame”), since at the time he lived, in the 7th-6th centuries B.C., ba‘al (“lord”) had become a primary descriptive name for the main male Canaanite diety (Baal) and so would have been considered repulsive and inappropriate as part of a Hebrew name. In Saul’s lifetime, however, ba‘al might have been attributed as a title to Yahweh.20 Since “Ishvi” (1 Sam 14:49) has no meaning,21 many scholars have reconstructed it to read “Ishyo” (meaning “man of Yahweh”).22 However, Hebrew names also were sometimes shortened and given endings of i or ay, similar to y and ie in English (as with Joey and Eddie);23 and so this might also have been a nickname.24

Another discrepancy noted above is that Ishbaal is listed second (Ishvi) in the list of Saul’s sons given in 1 Sam 14:49, but last (Eshbaal) in the lists given in Chron 8:33 and 9:39. So, was he the second-born or the last son born to King Saul and Queen Ahinoam? Since royal succession was based on birth order, it would be expected and important that the genealogical notation in 1 Sam 14:49 follow the chronological order.25 But why the variation in Chronicles? Y. Zakovitch (1977) has described a “three-four” pattern there, where the name of Eshbaal (Ishbaal) has been moved to the end of the list because he succeeded Saul to his throne.26 Thus respect is shown to the royal heir, even though Ishbaal only ruled for two years (2 Sam 2:10) and the Chronicler, a strong supporter of David, omits the story of his rule (cf. 2 Sam 2:8–4:8) from his record.27 The significance of all this is that since Ishbaal, Saul’s second-born son, was 40 years old when his father died, Jonathan was probably only a little older, perhaps 41 at the time. Since Jonathan was the first son born to this young (still-romantic) couple, we can assume that probably another child (a son or daughter) was born the following year, and perhaps another the following year. All this would further suggest that Jonathan was around 29 years old when he met David, who would have been around 18 years old (with an 11 year age difference).

David is given a military commission. When we come to Saul’s chronology, the matter is more complicated – although there are still important clues to be found in the text. One of these is Saul’s appointment of Jonathan as commander over one-third of his army (13:2). Since Num 1:3 specified that at the age of twenty a male in Israel was “able to go to war,” this means that Jonathan must have been at least 20 years old at the time. However, since Jonathan’s military appointment (13:2) immediately follows Saul’s royal introduction (13:1) in the text, many scholars (including Diana Edelman) have concluded that the battles at Geba and Michmash (chs. 13-14) occurred very early in Saul’s reign;28 while others feel that the incidents recorded in 1 Sam “do not give a complete picture” of Saul’s reign (Mary Evans)29 and that “many years” separate Saul’s selection as king and Jonathan’s attack on Geba (Robert Gordon).30 Hans Hertzberg notes how Saul appears first as the young son of his father (9:1ff), then as a capable military leader (11:1ff), and then suddenly as the father of a son of military age (13:2ff).31 Still, he (as well as Edelman) suggests that Saul was made king around the age of 30 32 – although if 13:1&2 are connected, this would mean that he fathered Jonathan at the age of 10 or younger. Edelman suggests that (if Saul had a 22-year reign) Jonathan was 8-10 years old when he was given his military commission,33 which is not believable. It is much more likely that a period of 20 “silent” years separates Saul’s royal installation ending with 1 Sam 13:1 and the grown-up Jonathan’s military appointment in 13:2. It should be remembered that the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek texts for the Bible had no chapter or verse divisions. In pre-Talmudic times (prior to 400 A.D.),34 the Jews had begun dividing up their Scripture into major sections and smaller divisions, to facilitate reading in the synagogue (divisions which correspond nearly to the English Bible today). However, chapter divisions, as we know them, came later, ascribed either to Cardinal Hugo de St. Caro (died 1248) or by others to Stephan Langton, archbishop of Canterbury (died 1227).35 Probably 13:1 would have been better numbered as the last verse of chapter 12.

Alfred Hoerth holds that Saul reigned for about 40 years, that David was around 15 when he was anointed by Samuel, and that Saul had about 25 years of “good rule” (about which the Bible is silent), followed by approximately 15 years of “decline.” However, he places these twenty silent years between ch. 14 (where David is already around 20 years old) and ch. 15, thus envisioning Jonathan as much older than David – in fact, perhaps 45 when David is anointed by Samuel and nearly 60 when he (Jonathan) is killed.36 The problem with this scheme is the difficulty of explaining how Jonathan was born and then over ten years passed before Saul and Ahinoam had their second-born son (Ishbaal). For this reason, the gap fits much better between 1 Sam 13:1&2. At least Hoerth is correct in noting that we know very little about Saul’s early good years – although he must have consulted frequently with Samuel as he fought various of the battles eluded to in 14:47-48. The Bible is not a modern history book; rather, it focuses on events which have spiritual significance, while skipping over other periods of time that lack such significance.37 In some ways Saul resembles Isaac. Both were important historically (Isaac as Abraham’s son and heir, and Saul as Israel’s first king), yet they both appear to lack that depth of character which leaves its mark in the spiritual perspective of Biblical history. Although Isaac lived 180 years (Gen 35:28), the record of his life is reduced to a few events, and even there he is portrayed as essentially a passive character. He is born and weaned (Gen 21:1-8), plays a central role in Abraham’s great test (22:1-18), is found a wife by Abraham’s chief servant (ch. 24), witnesses the birth of his twins Esau and Jacob (25:19-26), is tricked into giving Esau’s blessing to Jacob (ch. 27), and then dies (35:29). That’s it. Similarly with Saul, we should not be surprised to find that there are large gaps in the record of his ever more disheartening reign; and even the editor’s trumpeted military victories (14:47-48) seem like failures when viewed in the larger story of 1 Sam and context of God’s working.38

However, what might Saul have been doing during these two “silent” decades? As Wood and O’Brien suggest, the government that Saul established was simple, which probably was a good thing since the people were not ready for an elaborate rule. Archaeology has shown that Saul’s residence in his hometown of Gibeah was more like a small fortress than a lavish palace; and in fact only one officer is named in Scripture: Abner, captain of the army and Saul’s cousin (1 Sam 14:50). Saul may have held monthly meetings at the time of the new moon to discuss problems and strategies (20:24-27). The twelve tribes still thought of themselves as tribes rather than a nation, and perhaps Saul realized that a central government could only come into existence through an eventual voluntary allegiance based on the people coming to see its merits.39 Relating to the military, perhaps Saul continued with the approach he had used at the beginning in rescuing Jabesh-gilead (11:1-11), where he called for men from all of the tribes to come and fight enemy threats as they arose (v. 7-8). The Philistines, who earlier had captured the Ark of the Covenant in battle (chs. 5-6) and then suffered a horrible outbreak of bubonic plague, from mice and with tumors,40 perhaps retained a fear of the Israelites’ god so that they only became more aggressive as the decades passed, finally forcing Saul to upgrade his fighting approach, form a standing army, and utilize his eldest son, who in the meantime had come to military age. Still, when the new army faced its first test of strength and solidarity, 1,400 of Saul’s 2,000 troops suddenly ran off; and probably it was the same with Jonathan’s 1,000 troops, who are never mentioned again (1 Sam 13:2,5-7,15).

Saul is called a bachur before Samuel anoints him to be Israel’s first king. In 1 Sam 9:2, Saul is introduced to the reader as “a handsome bachur” – the last word translated as “young man” (NRSV, Peterson), “choice young man” (KJV, cf. NASB), and “young man in his prime” (NEB, REB).41 Since the noun bachur (#970) comes from the verb bachar (#977) which means “to choose, to select [an excellent choice], or to be [divinely] appointed,”42 it is not surprising that many scholars have concluded that bachur, as it relates to Saul in 1 Sam 9:2, points to a man around the age of 30, like David when he was made king in Hebron (2 Sam 5:4). H. Wildberger defines bachur as a “(fully-grown, strong) young man,” who has come into the bloom of life.43 Daniel Pecota, in his article on Hebrew words used for young(er) men, notes that bachur, like na‘ar, referred to a young man who had come into “the prime of manhood,” who had reached marriageable age – although na‘ar generally referred to a slightly younger age. Bachur was often paired with bethula (a “virgin”); and bachur and bethula parallel ‘elem (a “youth who has just reached or is about to reach adulthood”) and ‘alma (a “virgin”), its counterpart.44 Dr. Goldenring defines adolescence as that period generally between the ages 13-19, when the adolescent experiences not only physical growth and change but also emotional, psychological, social and mental change and growth.45 Therefore, we might locate an older na‘ar perhaps in the age bracket of 13-18 and an ‘elem and bachur in the age bracket of 18-20. As Tony Cartledge notes, bachur became a technical word for a male “who has reached the age of assuming adult responsibilities, such as marrying and going to war.”46

In surveying the uses of bachur and bachurim (pl.) in the OT, it becomes clear that these terms really do not carry over the meaning of the verb (i.e., someone “chosen” for a leadership role), but rather are applied to a youth who has completed adolescence. For example, we read, “Rejoice, young man [bachur], while you are young [bachurim] … Remember the creator in the days of your youth [bachurim], before the days of trouble come.” (Ecc 11:9a, 12:1, NRSV). Also, “The glory of youths [bachurim] is their strength…” (Prov 20:29); and “[A]s a young man [bachur] marries a young woman [bethula, #1330, ‘virgin’], so shall your builder [the Lord] marry you [Israel]…” (Isa 62:5). In numerous cases, bachur is paired with bethula, pointing to youths and maidens who have reached marriageable age (cf. Deut 32:25, 2 Chron 36:17). Jer 6:11 puts bachurim in an age sequence that includes: children, young men (bachurim), husband and wife, old folk, and the very aged. Isa 40:30 and Lam 5:13-14 even place bachurim in parallelisms connecting it with na‘arim (“youths” no older than adolescents, Strong #5288). None of these points to an older male who is 30, 40, or 50 years old – but rather to a young guy around 20, who has become sexually potent and who has mating on his mind. Therefore, contrary to popular scholarly opinion, Saul was probably only around twenty when the Lord called him and Samuel anointed him to become Israel’s first king. We must remember that Samuel also appears to have been recognized as a prophet of the Lord in Israel at a young age (1 Sam 3:19-20), that Jonathan was around 20 when his faith led Israel to a great victory, and that David was only a teenager when he killed Goliath, moved to court, and soon was appointed by Saul as commander over a thousand men (18:13); then shortly he will flee to become the young leader of his own band of vagabonds (22:1-2). Perhaps God likes calling young people, who are not set in their ways, who can dream big dreams, and who hopefully who will place their trust in the Almighty for success. Therefore, we believe Saul was around 20 when he was selected by God to be king of Israel.

Perhaps it should be noted, also, that later kings in the Southern Kingdom of Israel generally came to the throne at a younger, rather than an older, age – as can be seen in this list of coronation ages: Rehoboam – 41 (1 Kings 14:21), Abijam – (not given), Asa – (not given), Jehoshaphat – 35 (22:42), Jehoram – 32 (2 Kings 8:17), Ahaziah – 22 (8:26), Athaliah (queen-mother) – (not given), Johoash – 7 (11:21), Amaziah – 25 (14:2), Azariah/Uzziah – 16 (15:2), Jotham – 25 (15:33), Ahaz – 20 (16:2), Hezekiah – 25 (18:2), Manasseh – 12 (21:1), Amon – 22 (21:19), Josiah – 8 (22:1), Jehoahaz – 23 (23:31), Jehoiakim – 25 (23:36), Jehoiachin – 18 (24:8), and Zedekiah – 21 (24:18). The mean (middle) age of ascent here is actually 22 years of age. At least, we can say that young kings were not unusual or unacceptable in ancient Israel.

When David appears before Saul (17:55-58) after killing Goliath, the king does not seem to recognize him at all, even though he had earlier retained David as a young lyre-player and armor-bearer (16:19-23). Of course, we cannot be sure how long David stayed with Saul or how regularly, since 18:14 tells us that “David went back and forth from Saul to feed his father’s sheep.” Perhaps he missed his animals as well as his family, and so asked the king for repeated leave, which was granted him. Perhaps David also had grown so fast and filled out in such a short period of time that the troubled king did not recognize him. Whatever the explanation, we envision a 3-year period between David coming to Saul’s court as a musical lad and then returning as an acclaimed national hero.

At this point, then, in our study, we can to begin to assemble the various ages and periods of time that have been suggested by clues in the text, to construct a “Proposed Chronology for Saul’s Reign” (see link below). If we fit all of this data together, we find that it stretches nicely over a reign of 42 years, before Saul is killed at the age of 61 at the Battle of Mount Gilboa. Very likely, Jonathan and David were 29 and 18 respectively when they met; but after they enjoyed each other’s love and companionship for no more than a year, King Saul’s murderous fits of rage forced David to flee into the wilderness, where he lived in hiding for about 11 years. Later Jonathan was 41 when he was killed in battle, and David 30 when he was made king of Judah in Hebron. Scholars have offered various dates also the death of Saul, including 1000 B.C. (Barclay 1968, p. 109), 1010 B.C. (Archer 1979, p. 368; Oswalt, 1971, p. 68147); and more recently 1005 B.C. (Wood & O’Brien, 1986, p. 392; Cogan 1992, p. 101048; Coogan 1998, p. 598; Kirsch 2000, p. 316). Using 1005 B.C. as a likely date for Saul’s death, we can then suggest dates for other main events that occurred during Saul’s reign.


Proposed Chronology for Saul’s Reign
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FOOTNOTES: 1. Green, J., 13:1.   2. Kirsch, p. 39.   3. Youngblood, p. 654.   4. Robinson, p. 73.   5. Youngblood, p. 653-54.   6. McCarter, p. 222.   7. Ibid.   8. Youngblood, p. 654; Cartledge, p. 171.   9. Birch, B.C., “Number,” ISBE, III(1986), p. 557-58.   10. Strong, #5288.   11. Brown, #5288.   12. Webster’s New World College Dictionary.   13. Pecota, D.B., “Young(er) (Man),” ISBE, IV(1988), p. 1165-66.   14. Brown, #5959.   15. Edelman, “Saul,” p. 993.   16. Goldenring, p. 2-3.   17. Brueggemann 2002, p. 23.   18. Campbell, p. 181.   19. Schultz, S.J., “Hebron,” ISBE, II(1982), p. 670.   20. Cartledge, p. 371; Breslich, A.L., “Ish-bosheth,” ISBE, II(1982), p. 904-05.   21. Youngblood, p. 669.   22. McCarter, p. 254.   23. Stuart, D., “Names, Proper,” ISBE, III(1986), p. 486.   24. Saul also had two daughters, Merab and Michal (1 Sam 14:49), as well as two sons by his concubine Rizpah, named Armoni and Mephibosheth (the latter not to be confused with Jonathan’s son with the same name, cf. 2 Sam 21:7-9).   25. Cf. Harrison, R.K., “Genealogy,” ISBE, II(1982), p. 425.   26. Zakovitch, in Kalimi, p. 362-64.   27. Kalimi, p. 364.   28. Edelman, “Saul,” p. 992-93.   29. Evans, p. 71.   30. Gordon, p. 133.   31. Hertzberg, p. 103.   32. Ibid.; Edelman, “Saul,” p. 993.   33. Edelman, “Jonathan,” ABD, III, p. 946.   34. Two Talmuds served as a commentary on and expansion of the earlier Mishnah (“Instruction”) on Scripture compiled by Jewish rabbis ca. 200 A.D. – including the Jerusalem Talmud (ca. 400 A.D.) and the Babylonia Talmud (ca. 600 A.D.). Cf. Neusner, J., “Talmud,” ISBE, IV(1988), p. 717.   35. Orr, J., “Bible,” ISBE, I(1979), p. 492.   36. Hoerth, p. 252-53, 259.   37. Ibid., p. 252-53.   38. Cf. Green, B., p. 249.   39. Wood & O’Brien, p. 201.   40. McCarter, p. 123.   41. Cf. also Strong, #970; Brown, #970.   42. Wildberger, p. 209,212.   43. Ibid., p. 210.   44. Pecota, D., “Young(er) (Man),” ISBE, IV(1988), p. 1165-66.   45. Goldenring, p. 3.   46. Cartledge, p. 122.   47. Oswalt, J., “Chronology of the Old Testament,” ISBE, I(1979), p. 681.   48. Cogan, M., “Chronology: Hebrew Bible,” ABD, I, 1010.

Ackroyd, Peter, The First Book of Samuel, 1971.
Anchor Bible Dictionary, vols. I-VI, 1992.
Archer, Gleason, Jr., “The Chronology of the Old Testament,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, I, 1979, p. 357-374.
Barclay, William, et al., The Bible and History, 1968.
Breuggemann, Walter, David’s Truth in Israel’s Imagination and Memory, 2nd ed. 2002.
Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver, & Charles Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, 2000.
Campbell, Antony, 1 Samuel (The Forms of the Old Testament Literature), 2003.
Cartledge, Tony, 1 & 2 Samuel (Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary), 2001.
Coogan, Michael, Oxford History of the Biblical World, 1998.
Edelman, Diana, “Saul,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992, V, p. 989-999.
Evans, Mary, 1 and 2 Samuel (New International Biblical Commentary), 2000.
Goldenring, John, M.D., “Puberty and Adolescence,” MedlinePlus website – Search for Then click on Pm-Pz, scroll down to the title of the article and click on it, and then scroll down to view the article.
Gordon, Robert, 1 & 2 Samuel: A Commentary, 1986.
Green, Barbara, How Are the Mighty Fallen? A Dialogical Study of King Saul in 1 Samuel, 2003.
Green, Jay, Sr., The Interlinear Bible: Hebrew-Greek-English, 2nd ed. 1986.
Hertzberg, Hans, I & II Samuel: A Commentary, 1964.
Hoerth, Alfred, Archaeology and the Old Testament, 1998.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vols. I-IV, 1979-88.
Kalimi, Isaac, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles, 2005.
Kirsch, Jonathan, King David: The Real Life of the Man Who Ruled Israel, 2000.
Klein, Ralph, 1 Samuel (Word Biblical Commentary), 1983.
McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr., I Samuel (Anchor Bible), 1980.
Robinson, Gnana, Let Us Be Like the Nations: A Commentary on the Books of 1 and 2 Samuel (International Theological Commentary), 1993.
Strong, James, “Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary,” Abingdon’s Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible…, 1890.
Wildberger, H., bhr, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, ed. E. Jenni and C. Westermann, I, 1997, p. 209-226.
Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th ed. 2002.
Wood, Leon, and rev. by David O’Brien, A Survey of Israel’s History, 1986.
Youngblood, Ronald, “1, 2 Samuel,” Expositor’s Bible Commentary, III, 1992, p. 553-1104.

TRANSLATIONS: King James Version, 1611.   Lamsa, George: Holy Bible … from the Aramaic of the Peshitta, 1933.   New American Standard Bible, 1960.   New English Bible, 1970.   New International Version, 1978.   New Revised Standard Version, 1989.   Revised English Bible, 1989.   Peterson, Eugene: The Message, 2002.


© 2005 Bruce L. Gerig

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