Genesis 1
SCIENCE AND THE BIBLE

By Bruce Gerig

Introduction
Chapter 1: The Hebrew Text and the First Creation Account
Chapter 2: The Evolutionary View and Genesis 1
Chapter 3: Five Approaches to Reconciling Science and Genesis 1
Footnotes, References and Translations

Footnotes, References and Translations

FOOTNOTES: Introduction – 1. Van Biema, p. 48-55.    2. Dawkins, 2006.     3. Collins, 2006.     4. Lemonick, p. 44; cf. Cheetham, passim.     5. Lemonick, p. 44.    6. Gingerich, p. 46-47.     7. Purvres 2004, p. 444, 448-50, 550.     8. Ibid., p. 676.     9. In Ramm, p. 174.     10. Scofield Study Bible, heading for Gen 1.     11. Cf. Youngblood, passim.     12. Anonymous, “Galileo vs. the Church,” online p. 1.     13. Moore, online p. 1.     14. Brown, Francis, p. 244.     15. Ramm, p. 174-76; Strobel 2004, passim; Archer 1994, p. 199-203; Youngblood, p. 12-109.     16. There is divided opinion as to where the first Creation account should actually end. Some interpreters say after Gen 2:3 (Cassuto 1961, p. 7; NIV 1978; Sarna 1989, p. 3; Hamilton 1990, p. 4-5), while others say after Gen 2:4 (Brueggemann 1982, p. 22; Harrison, R.K., “Genesis,” ISBE II [1982], p. 436). However, the majority hold that it most properly ends after Gen 2:4a (Speiser 1964, p. 3; NEB 1970; Von Rad 1972, p. 47; GNB 1983; NJB 1998; CEV 1995; Peterson 2002.     17. Kselman, p. 84.     18. Hamilton, p. 147.     19. Speiser, p. 10-11.     20. Cf. Warfield, B.B., “Inspiration,” ISBE II (1982), p. 840.     21. Cf. Hamilton, p. 123.    22. Sarna, p. 4.

Chapter 1 – 23. Sarna, p. 5.     24. Hamilton, p. 104.     25. Speiser, p. 3; Sarna, p. 5-7.     26. Hamilton, p. 104.     27. Cassuto, p. 19-20.     28. B.S. Childs, 1960; in Hamilton, p. 105.     29. Von Rad, p. 46; Sailhamer, p. 19.     30. Brown, Francis, p. 135; LaSor, p. 71.     31. Von Rad, p. 49.     32. Speiser, p. 5.     33. Neophyti I, in Sailhamer, p. 27.     34. Sarna, p. 6.     35. Strong, “Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary,” #430.     36. Sarna, p. 6.     37. Speiser, p. 3.     38. Sarna, p. 6.     39. Cf. Hamilton, p. 112.     40. Ramm, p. 196.     41. Ibid., p. 197.     42. Alexander, p. 882-85.     43. Grogan, p. 104ff.     44. Green, N., “Day Star,” ISBE I (1979), p. 879.     45. New Oxford American Dictionary, “Lucifer.”     46. Marshall, p. 905.     47. Porter, p. 1272.     48. Strong, “Greek Dictionary of the New Testament,” #3772.     49. Strauss, p. 238; Caird, p. 154-55; Walvoord, p. 191-92.     50. Cf. Claus Westermann, noted in Throntveit, p. 48.     51. Sarna, p. 7.     52. Cf. Archer 1994, p. 201.     53. Hasel, G.F., “Day,” ISBE I (1979), p. 878.     54. Fretheim, p. 12, 14; Von Rad, p. 65; Hamilton, p. 53.     55. In Throntveit, p. 41.     56. Cassuto, p. 13.     57. Ramm, p. 222-23.     58. Archer 1994, p. 199.     59. Cf. Cassuto, p. 28.     60. Sarna, p. 8.     61. Taylor Lewis, 1879; in Ramm, p. 214.     62. Sarna, p. 8.     63. Rolland de Vaux, 1965; in Hamilton, p. 121.     64. Cassuto, p. 28-29.     65. Gen 1:5 – cf. NASB; L. Fisher 1969, in Hamilton, p. 118; Von Rad, p. 46; LB, footnote; Green.     66. Cf. NASB; Cassuto, p. 21-60; Von Rad, p. 46-47; LB; Sarna, p. 7-14; Hamilton, p. 118-141.     67. Cf. Num 7:12,18,24,30,36,42,48, etc.     68. Throntveit, p. 51.     69. Hamilton, p. 149-50.     70. Sailhamer, p. 29.     71. Von Rad, p. 46.     72. Sarna, p. 8.     73. In Sailhamer, p. 28.     74. Hamilton, p. 122.     75. Cassuto, p. 31.     76. Hamilton, p. 124.     77. Ibid., p. 125-26.     78. Cf. Hamilton, p. 126.     79. Radmacher, p. 717.     80. Sarna, p. 7.     81. Hamilton, p. 124.     82. Von Rad, p. 52.     83. Sailhamer, p. 26.     84. Cassuto, p. 35; Von Rad, p. 47.     85. Anonymous, “Kind,” ISBE III (1986), p. 19; for a description of the modern taxonomic structure, cf. Purves 2004, p. 503-04.     86. Cf. Speiser, p. 3; Sarna, p. 9; Hamilton, p. 124.     87. In Ramm, p. 288-89.     88. Ibid., p. 289.     89. Sarna, p. 9.     90. Hamilton, p. 125.     91. In Hamilton, p. 121.     92. Scofield Study Bible, note 4 for Gen 1:3.     93. Strong, “Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary,” #6213.     94. Moore, online p. 3.     95. Cf. Cassuto, p. 43-44.     96. Hamilton, p. 128.     97. Ibid., p. 127.     98. Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions, “Shamash,” “Yarikh.”     99. Sarna, p. 9-10.     100. Radmacher, p. 5.     101. Sarna, p. 10.     102. Ibid., p. 10.     103. Hamilton, p. 129-30.     104. Von Rad, p. 56-57.     105. Hamilton, p. 131.     106. Wolff, R.J., “Zoology,” ISBE IV (1988), p. 109.     107. Sarna, p. 11.     108. Moore, online p. 7.     109. Hamilton, p. 132.     110. Dennison, J.T., Jr., “Creeping Things,” ISBE I (1979), p. 812.     111. Moore, online p. 8.     112. Engelhard, D.H., “Beast,” ISBE I (1979), p. 442.     113. Sarna, p. 11.     114. Wolff, R.J., “Zoology,” IV (1988), p. 1204,1208.     115. Sarna, p. 12.     116. Von Rad, p. 58.     117. Sarna, p. 11-13.     118. Hamilton, p. 133-34.     119. Ibid., p. 132.     120. Ibid., p. 132.     121. Ibid., p. 142.     122. Claus Westermann, in Hamilton, p. 143.     123. McCone, p. 31.

Chapter 2 – 124. Strobel 2004, p. 94.     125. Overbye, F3.     126. Moore, online p. 9-10.     127. Van Biema, p. 50.     128. In Strobel 2004, p. 93.     129. Purves 1987, p. 864; Gingerich, p. 47.     130. Purves 1987, p. 864.     131. Purves 2004, p. 444-45, 447-49.     132. Purves 1987, p. 851.     133. Moore, online p. 11; Purves 1987, p. 857.     134. Held, online p. 2; Moore, online p. 11.     135. Purves 2004, p. 4-5.     136. Ibid., p. 5, 445.     137. Ibid., p. 444-45, 447, 65.     138. Ibid., “bacterium,” G3.     139. Ibid., p. 524, 539.     140. Ibid., p. 444, 446, 550.     141. Ibid., p. 35-36, 5.     142. Ibid., p. 36-37.     143. Ibid., p. 444.     144. Ibid., p. 449-50; New Oxford American Dictionary, “Arthropodia.”     145. Purves 2004, p. 632-33.     146. Ibid., p. 636.     147. Ibid., p. 578.     148. Ibid., p. 450, 578.     149. See illus. 29.11 in Purves 2004, p. 580.     150. Purves 2004, p. 451, 668.     151. Ibid., p. 452.     152. Ibid., p. 391.     153. Ibid., p. 452. 153. Ibid., p. 452.     154. Ibid., p. 672.     155. Ibid., p. 670.     156. Ibid., p. 453.     157. Ibid., p. 453.     158. Ramm, p. 220-21.     159. Puvres 2004, p. 444, 5.     160. Ibid., p. 588, 593, 454.     161. In Strobel 2004, p. 33-34, 37-38.     162. Ibid., p. 39, 41.     163. Ramm, p. 257-58.     164. In Ramm, p. 258.     165. Ibid., p. 258.     166. Ramm, p. 259.     167. In Strobel 2004, p. 239.     168. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, “mullosk.”     169. See illus. 33.7 in Purves 2004, p. 646.     170. Stephen Meyer, in Strobel 2004, p. 241.     171. Strobel 2004, p. 65.     172. Jonathan Wells, in Strobel 2004, p. 46.     173. Rodney Whitefield, in Moore, online p. 7.     174. Hamilton, p. 129.     175. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, p. 1696-97; Purves 2004, p. 444.     176. Purves 2004, p. 670, 444-45.     177. In Strobel 2004, p. 52-54.     178. Ibid., p. 56-57.     179. Jonathan Wells, in Strobel 2004, p. 59-60.     180. Michael Denton, in Strobel 2004, p. 56.     181. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, p. 1696; cf. Purves 2004, p. 444.     182. Johnston, online p. 1-3.     183. Sailhamer, p. 26.     184. Johnston, online p. 1.     185. Ibid., online p. 3-4.     186. Smithsonian Institution, p. 22.     187. Purves 2004, p. 677.     188. Smithsonian Institution, p. 26-27.     189. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, “Neanderthal.”     190. Smithsonian Institution, p. 28-29.     191. Ibid., p. 30.     192. Ibid., p. 31.     193. Ibid., p. 32; Janson, p. 2-4.     194. Ibid., p. 10, 1.     195. Smithsonian Institution, p. 30.     196. Janson, p. 6, 12.     197. Smithsonian Institution, p. 33.     198. Ibid., p. 34-35.     199. Janson, p. 48.     200. Smithsonian Institution, p. 34-35.     201. Groleau, online p. 1-2.     202. Ibid., online p. 1,3.     203. Smithsonian Institution, p. 30; Wells, Spencer, online p. 2.     204. Gibbons, p. 28.     205. Ibid., p. 28.     206. Ibid., p. 29.     207. Wells, Spencer, online p. 1-2.     208. Gibbons, p. 29.     209. In Strobel 2004, p. 62-63.     210. Archer 1994, p. 212.     211. Ibid., p. 211.     212. Archer 1979, p. 365.     213. Archer 1994, p. 211.     214. Mitchell, p. 450; cf. Strong, “Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary,” #1121. Note also 1 Chron 7:13, which speaks of Jahziel, Guni, Jezer and Shallum as “the sons [beni] of Bilhah” (NASB), whereas Gen 46:24 describes them instead as the sons of Naphtali, the son of Bilhah – Rachel’s maid given to Jacob (Gen 35:25).     215. Archer 1994, p. 212.

Chapter 3 – 216. Ramm, p. 113.     217. Collins, p. 203.     218. Columbia Encyclopedia, “evolution.”     219. Purves 2004, p. 2, 4.     220. Purves 2004, p. 6-7.     221. In Morris and Morris, II, p. 128.     222. In Collins, p. 163.     223. Purves 2004, p. 13.     224. In Collins, p. 163.     225. Dawkins 1989, passim.     226. Ibid., p. 200-01.     227. Gish, p. iv, 321.     228. Ramm, p. 269-71.     229. Collins, p. 163-64.     230. Steinfels, B5; also cf. Strobel, The Case for Faith, 2000.     231. In Collins, p. 165-66.     232. In Strobel 2004, p. 213.     233. Glynn, p. 21-23.     234. Ibid., p. 29-30.     235. Gingerich, p. 32, 38-39.     236. Ramm, p. 113.     237. Collins, p. 172.     238. Morris and Morris, II, p. 9 and back cover; Gish, p. 33, ix.     239. Morris and Morris, II, p. 323.     240. Ibid., p. 13-14.     241. Ibid., p. 258.     242. Ibid., II, 274; I, 28.     243. Cf. Collins, p. 172; Gish, p. 15.     244. Morris and Morris, II, 51-56, 239-40, 204.     245. Collins, p. 92.     246. Morris and Morris, II, p. 320-26.     247. Steirwalt, online p. 1-2.     248. Ramm, p. 182-83.     249. Young, p. 56.     250. Ibid., p. 60-63.     251. Ibid., p. 63-65.     252. Ibid., p. 72-75.     253. Collins, p. 88-89.     254. Ibid., p. 174, 176-77.     255. Morris and Morris, II, p. 120.     256. Rothstein, E1, E5.     257. Corbin, p. 430-35.     258. Brown, Walt, p. 99-107.     259. Ibid., p. 86ff, 92.     260. In Ramm, p. 280-93, esp. 286.     261. Collins, p. 202.     262. Ibid., p. 200.     263. In Collins, p. 228.     264. Collins, p. 204-05, 207.     265. Roughgarden, p. 3 and back cover flap.     266. Ibid., p. 57, 59.     267. Ibid., p. 9-10, 16-18.     268. Ibid., p. 44, 47.     269. Ibid., p. 63.     270. Ibid., p. 86-89, 99, 95.     271. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, “Deism.”     272. Gingerich, p. 12.     273. Ibid., p. 5, 67, 7.     274. Ibid., p. 29-30, 77.     275. Ibid., p. 69.     276. Ibid., p. 60.     277. Ramm, p. 112-17.     278. Discovery Institute, press release about the Dissent list, last updated 2/07 – accessed 6/30/07.     279. Discovery Institute, “Fact Sheet: Microevolution vs. Macroevolution,” undated – accessed 6/30/07.     280. Discovery Institute, “Fact Sheet: The Cambrian Explosion,” undated – accessed 6/30/07.     281. Cf. Collins, p. 183-84.     282. Johnson, Phillip, p. 158-59, 128.     283. Strobel 2004, p. 195.     284. Behe, p. 39, 193.     285. Strobel 2004, p. 248.     286. In Strobel 2004, p. 83.     287. Collins, p. 185.     288. In Strobel 2004, p. 196-97.     289. Behe, p. 39.     290. Ibid., p. 69-73; and Strobel 2004, p. 204-05.     291. In Strobel 2004, p. 205.     292. Ibid., p. 207.     293. Strobel 2004, p. 283-85.     294. Morris and Morris, I, p. 95-96, 99.     295. Ibid., I, p. 104.     296. In Roughgarden, p. 62.     297. Collins, p. 88-89.     298. Roughgarden, p. 87, 89.     299. Ibid., p. 91-92.     300. Ibid., p. 88.     301. Ibid., p. 83-84, 88, 95.     302. Collins, p. 203.     303. Ibid., p. 219-20.     304. Ibid., p. 221-23; cf. Strobel, The Case for Christ, 1998.     305. Lewis 1952, p. 50; in Collins, p. 224-25.     306. Collins, p. 207.     307. Lewis 1966, p. 68-71; in Collins, p. 208-09.     308. Collins, p. 209.     309. Ibid., p. 204-05.     310. Ibid., p. 204.     311. Ibid., p. 210-11.     312. Strobel, p. 277.     313. Behe, p. 238-39.     314. Behe, p. 241-42.     315. Chang, A1, A10.     316. Ibid., p. A10.     317. Johnson, George, F2.     318. In Shulevitz, p. 10.     319. Dean, F4.

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TRANSLATIONS: Contemporary English Version, 1995.     Good News Bible, 1983.     Jerusalem Bible, 1966.     King James Version, 1611.     Living Bible, 1976.     New American Standard Bible,     1960. New English Bible,     1970. New International Version, 1978.     New Jerusalem Bible, 1998.     New King James Version, 1982.     New Revised Standard Version, 1989.     Peterson, Eugene: The Message, 2002.     Revised English Bible, 1989.     Revised Standard Version, 1946.

 

© 2007 Bruce Gerig


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